This is going to be a long one, but I wanted to have all of my ideas on this in one place. I am probably going to keep adding to the post as I get new ideas. Many who have already spent some time thinking about how they can make their lifestyle more environmentally sustainable might already know about some, perhaps all of the following points but maybe it will still be helpful to you to see all of them in one list. Perhaps it will remind you of the importance of being very aware of what you consume and of cutting back on the things that negatively affect the environment and maybe even you by weighing you down unnecessarily. At least, that’s what I hope this blog post will be able to do for you and I would be delighted if you took the time to read it and maybe even shared some of your own ideas with me in a comment :).
“I’m starting with the man in the mirror. I’m asking him to change his ways. And no message could have been any clearer: if you want to make the world a better place, take a look at yourself and then make a change. I’m going to make a change for once in my life.”
The 5 R’s:
REDUCE: Simplify your lifestyle by reducing the amount of things you buy, consume and throw away.
REFUSE: Refuse the things that you realise are unsustainable and unnecessary in your life. To do this, you have to become very aware of the products you consume and the actions you take, inform yourself about their impact, start thinking about what you really need and then act on what you have realised during this process.
REUSE: Realise the value of all the items around you and of the materials they were made from. Don’t just throw stuff away. Think about how you could reuse things or give them away for others to use and enjoy. Try to find a second hand option when you want to buy something like clothes, books, furniture etc. and also try to avoid buying products that come in packaging which is made to only be used once and thus cannot easily be reused.
RECYCLE: Ideally, after the first three steps, there should not be a lot that you have to recycle. Make sure that you seperate and clean the items properly in order to facilitate the recycling process. Again, try to think about the material and work it took to make the different items. It will result in you becoming more mindful and consuming more responsibly.
Use Ecosia (a search engine that plants trees with the money it makes)
Avoid flying and driving
Walking/ cycling/ public transport/ car-sharing
Go on vacation closer to home
Support local businesses (also when on vacation!)
Wwoof (world-wide opportunities on organic farms)/ workaway: great cheap & sustainable option for a gap year or active vacation -> Get food & accomodation for free in exchange for some hours of work and really immerse yourself in the culture by living with locals
Eat less or no meat/ animal products (meat-free days/ vegetarian/ vegan) and make sure those you do eat come from sources which care about the animals and the environment
Buy more locally sourced, unprocessed, unpackaged food: go to weekly farmers’ markets and bring your reusable bags and containers! (maybe you also have a bulk store near you?)
Avoid food waste (difference between best-before and use-by dates, observe how much you need in a week and plan your grocery shops accordingly, follow the recommendations on storage, make sure you can see everything in your fridge well so that nothing goes bad because you forgot about it)
Avoid single-use and non-compostable packaging and other products (there are biodegradable alternatives to plastic now!, my chocolate is packaged in it:) ); for this one you have to continually pay a lot of attention in order to notice where the stuff that you immediately throw away after using it once enters your life (e.g. packaging of food/ drinks you get when you’re out with friends, paper mail & advertisements, plastic water bottles, office supplies…); then you can start working on eliminating them/ finding alternatives
Bring a reusable water-bottle and lunch-box with food you made at home in order to avoid buying water and processed food packaged in plastic
Don’t leave any trash you maybe still generate lying around outside & try to pick up some of what other people leave behind (maybe there are even clean-up projects near you that you could participate in?)
Volunteer for/donate to a reliable environmental organisation
Maybe try and grow some of your own food (or ask at a local farm if you could perhaps spend a day or even more working with them to experience what it takes to grow good organic food; a two week internship I did at an organic farm got me really interested in sustainable food production!)
Sustainable electronics: This is quite difficult as far as I know, but you could always try to find recycled options and in the case of buying a new phone, I have heard that the company Fairphone is doing a good job. The fairphone 3 is quite expensive (450 euros), but this is because the company really makes an effort in terms of responsible material sourcing and good working conditions. Plus, it is a completely modular phone and they offer spare parts, which means that it should last you much longer than other phones.
Avoid wasting water: short showers instead of long ones or baths, not leaving the water running when it is not needed, washing clothes & dishes with full loads or, even better, filling the sink, closing the tap, and washing them by hand (the easier the more you refused and reduced before!), water-saving equipments (toilets, dishwashers, shower heads…), drinking tap water (if it’s safe where you live!), water harvesting, grey-water treatment, composting toilets, not contaminating water with chemicals from hygiene and cleaning products…
Use more natural hygiene and cleaning products: this one is closely connected to the last one. You don’t want to harm the environment or your body by using products full of chemicals on yourself or on the items in your home. The first step here is of course to cut back on the amount of products you use and to then find more sustainable options for those that you do need. There are loads of options for natural hygiene and cleaning products out there, so it should not be a problem to find the right ones for you! (examples: bamboo toothbrushes, toothpaste tabs in compostable packaging, package-free natural soaps, coconut oil)
Reusable period products: menstrual cups, washable period-proof underwear, washable pads…
Use reusable cloths or sponges for cleaning instead of kitchen paper or disposable plastic sponges
Consider switching from tissues to washable cotton handkerchiefs
Wrap food in reusable beeswax wraps instead of in plastic or aluminium foil
If you have a dog: consider getting biodegradable dog poo bags
Try to find a brand that offers toilet paper made from recycled materials or from bamboo (it would of course be best if you found it in a store near you instead of having to order it on the internet)
Make your garden/ balkony a home for many different plants & animals: build insect houses, make your collection of plants as diverse as possible and choose those that are very useful for insects, let everything grow a bit more freely so that your green space not only looks nice but can also serve as a place of refuge and as a home for small animals
Avoid wasting energy: Switch off/ unplug devices and lights when you don’t need them, buy energy-saving appliances when the old ones stop working, fill any gaps you find under skirting boards or at windows and doors, don’t leave the fridge door open, defrost, don’t put hot food in the fridge, let your clothes & hair air dry, cover pots and pans with a lid when cooking, take more cold showers (also good for your health! 🙂 ), don’t put too much water in the kettle, try to think more about warming your body (e.g. with a blanket) than warming up the entire house when you feel it’s a little cold
If you want to build a new home or it is possible for you to do some work on your current one, try to use natural and/or reclaimed materials and to insulate the building well (maybe you would like to inform yourself a bit about passive houses)
If it’s possible to you, switch to renewable energy sources (but inform yourself well about how reliable the different providers are!)
Switch to a bank that explicitly doesn’t invest in unsustainable projects/companies
Make notebooks from paper that is still blank on the back (simple tutorial)
Share with others: don’t just think of your stuff as YOUR stuff, tell others that you are open to sharing (e.g. clothing, books, household utensils…) and you will see what a positive effect this can have!
Inspire others!!: Encourage more sustainable living in your family, friend group, at school, in the workplace, on social media…This way, the changes each of us make individually add up and turn into something that can truly change the world.
To put it in a nutshell, it is all about becoming aware of how much and what you consume, carefully thinking about which of these things you need in life and which ones you do not and then aligning your actions with your beliefs. This means reducing the amount you consume and finding more sustainable options for the things you still want to have (best case: borrowed/second hand/local/organic/unpackaged). And, most importantly, share your ideas and plans concerning a more sustainable lifestyle with others in order to inspire them, to have a bigger impact and to have more fun on your journey by taking it with others!
Thank you so much for taking the time to read this post! Please do not hesitate if you would like to leave a comment to ask a question, start a discussion or add something to the list. I hope that I was able to help and inspire you with this post. It can often feel like you’re not doing enough, no matter how much of an effort you make, but I hope that this list was able to encourage you to do what you can, to be proud of that and to share it with others. It might not seem like it, but you have all the potential to change the world. Because remember: You may be a small part of this world, but you are not insignificant!
I have just finished the fourth and final week of learning with this online course by the University of Exeter, which I found on futurelearn.com. During the past month, I have learnt a lot of new, interesting things about why climate change is happening and what effects it is already having on ecosystems and communities. This post is supposed to help me summarise and reflect on what I have learned and I hope that it will also be interesting and helpful to you (my comments are in bold). Thank you for visiting my blog! 🙂
What was covered?
This week, the course was wrapped up with information on making climate predictions, on the tipping points we should be careful not to reach, on the Anthropocene and the ‘Great Acceleration’, as well as on mitigation and adaption to climate change.
Making a climate model
At the beginning of the week, it was explained that whether you are making predictions about short-term weather changes or about long-term climate changes, the processes which have to be modelled are quite similar. However, when making climate projections, additional processes are required, as you also have to take into account the slower components of the climate system, like ocean currents or carbon being stored in vegetation.
With all of these additional factors added, a climate model aims to simulate how the temperature, humidity and wind in the atmosphere and the temperature, salinity and currents in the ocean will vary over time. As one can imagine, making one of these models requires a large supercomputer, as about two million calculations are required for every time step of the model (about 20 minutes) and as more than 100 years have to be simulated. As a result, even a large supercomputer will take three months for a typical climate simulation, which is why people are very careful not to make any mistakes on them.
Another challenge is that some of the underlying equations which control the system are not known to us, for example equations about how vegetation and soil will respond to climate change and how much carbon they will absorb. It is very difficult to determine what these equations should look like, so scientists have to make predicitons by looking at lots of data from the past. However, in many cases, we have known the underlying equations for quite a long time, with one example being the Navier-Stokes equations, which help to determine how the atmosphere and oceans move.
Testing whether a model is realistic
Once a climate model has been finished, it has to be tested whether it is realistic or not. To do this, you check if it can reproduce aspects of the past that have been observed, most importantly the 0.8 degrees Celsius of warming since the mid-19th century. What is interesting is that, if you only put natural factors into the models (e.g. varied output from the sun, volcanism), they reproduce the observed aspects of the climate only until about 1970. From then onwards, actual warming and the simulation diverge and the models tend to have the climate cooling instead of warming.
However, when you add human factors, particularly the increase in the release of carbon dioxide, the models reproduce the observed warming extremely well. Thus, the climate models help us to work out how much of contemporary climate change is due to human activity. They allowed the IPCC to make a quite definitive statement about the causes of climate change, in which it said that there is a chance of at least 90% that global warming is due to man-made greenhouse gases. I learned that this method of attributing observed global warming to different factors is sometimes called fingerprinting, which I think is quite fitting.
I think it is really interesting that the models tend to show that the climate should be cooling right now if it were not for human influence. The main argument I have been hearing from people who do not believe in climate change is that the climate has been changing since long before humans existed and that contemporary climate change is just another example of such natural change. To be able to show that the climate would be doing the opposite to what it is doing now if only natural factors were influencing it could be helpful in starting to convince others of caring more about the issue.
Challenges of projecting future climate
After having checked how realistic the models are, the next stage would be to try and project how the climate might be changing over the next 100 years. The online course underlined how challenging this is by mentioning the fact that we cannot really be sure how atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will change in the future, as we do not know how human activities (population growth & energy generation) and the natural world (absorption of carbon dioxide by ocean and vegetation) will develop.
When I tried out the ‘My2050 Calculator‘, I was happy to see what changes in the behaviour of individuals, were they to spread and become mainstream, could do in terms of reducing emissions and combatting climate change. I am still optimistic that many people will be inspired in the coming years to live more sustainably and that the decisions of governments and companies will be influenced by this. However, the future lifestyle choices of people (including how many children they want to have) and the decisions of companies and governments are very difficult to predict and even if they became ever more supporting of the environment, there is still a range of unpredictable environmental events that could take place. One disaster we are not able to control in time could trigger an irreversible feedback.
Because of these challenges, scenarios produced by the IPCC are based on different storylines of how the world will evolve over the next 100 years. They range from a world in which we work very hard to cut emissions and avoid two degrees of warming, to a world where we go on with ‘business as usual’ and get as much as 6 degrees Celsius of warming over the next 100 years.
The IPCC climate models
The IPCC’s four climate models project global warming based on potential ‘Representative concentration pathways’ (RCPs). The most optimistic scenario of the four would be RCP2.6, which requires immediate and drastic action before 2020 and which would result in a temperature rise of 0.9 to 2.3 degrees Celsius (relative to pre-industrial) by 2100. The worst case scenario would be RCP8.5, which would effectively mean ‘business as usual’ and lead to an increase in global temperatures of 3.2 to 5.4 degrees Celsius by 2100.
There is already evidence that global warming is associated with increasing heat waves, droughts and more intense hurricanes and it is expected that we will see even more of that at ‘only’ 2 degrees Celsius of warming. If RCP8.5 becomes a reality and we eventually reach 6 degrees of warming, that would mean that the climate would have changed more than between the Ice Age and now, only 100 times faster. The result would be an extreme danger of crossing tipping points. For example, the gulf stream, which actually keeps the UK warmer than it should be at its latitude, could be weakened, leading to the area getting cooler. Even worse, the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, which have the potential of raising the global sea level by ten metres, could collapse.
All of this is extremely scary. The graph at the beginning and all the information from the past weeks on the effects of ‘only’ 1.5 or 2 degrees Celsius of warming make you realise how important it is that the RCP2.6 becomes a reality. But how likely is it that world leaders and corporations will take drastic and immediate action before 2020? I so want to be omptimistic and I do think that it is important to find out about all of these scenarios, but it is starting to make me feel a little hopeless and powerless.
The warming predicted by the IPCC only relates to carbon emissions, however, there are many more feedbacks in the climate system that may be important in determining future global warming potential and that may lead to tipping points:
Release of methane: Methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide. The Permafrost regions of Alaska, Siberia and Canada may become net releasers of methane if they thaw as a result of global warming. This would mean that old organic matter would be exposed, which would lead to it releasing significant methane stocks as it decomposes.
Instability of the West Antarctic ice sheet: Much of the West Antarctic ice sheet is grounded below sea level, which means that warming ocean waters can melt the ice. Additionally, the floating ice shelves which normally buttress the glaciers are breaking up. Examples of concerning events in the Antarctic are the collapse of the Larsen ice shelves, which led to glacier acceleration, and the apparent irreversible retreat of glaciers entering the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The loss of this area would contribute more than one metre to sea level rise and destabilise the rest of the ice sheet, which could lead to the collapse of the West Antractic ice sheet.
Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation: The Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation brings warm waters northwards before they cool and sink to the bottom of the ocean on either side of Greenland, propelling a southward flow of cold water at depth. An influx of fresh water or heat energy could disupt this circulation or even lead to its collapse, which would have effects all around the planet, like disrupting the summer monsoons in India and West Africa.
Amazon rainforest dieback: As a result of the 2005 and 2010 droughts across the Amazon, the rainforest switched from being a net sink to being a net source of carbon and droughts are still increasing tree mortality. Moreover, further changes in precipitation may lead to a dieback of the rainforest, which would lead to a very significant amount of carbon dioxide being released and triggering a positive feedback. Lastly, 20% of the Amazon have already been deforested, which puts increasing stress on an already fragile ecosystem.
Just this morning, I read this Aljazeera article on fires in the Amazon rainforest and I was shocked once again by the extent of the negative impact we are having on this beautiful ecosystem and by the unbelievable reaction of denial and hatred from the Brazilian president. He baselessly claims that NGOs are starting the fires to make him look bad and denies that man-made climate change is happening.
Next, the online course introduced us to the idea that we are standing at the dawn of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, in which climate change will alter the face of the planet. It was explained that we have recently reached a milestone in the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: 400 parts per million in May 2013, and that these levels are expected to rise to 1,500 parts per million around the year 2,300 if we continue to burn the known 4,000 billion tonnes of fossil fuels.
Moreover, in the coming centuries, and if that scenario becomes a reality, the planet could see the global average temperature peak at 8 degrees centigrade above pre-industrial levels, the interruption of the natural cycle of ice ages for hundreds of thousands of years, and sea-level rise of tens of metres. Additionally, it would take about one million years to return all the released carbon dioxide to the lithosphere, as it is a very long-lived pollutant and more persistent in the atmosphere than radioactive waste.
It is unbelievable how profound and long-lasting our effect on the planet might be if we do ‘business as usual’ (even if people might have a point when they say it is a little arrogant to claim that we will be the main thing shaping an entire epoch). It seems to me that humans do not usually think enough about the implications their actions have long-term. Maybe it’s because we are quite selfish animals and primarily care about our individual well-being. Even when we hear the most devestating things about how our behaviour might mess up the Earth’s systems for hundreds of thousands of years, many people refuse to cut back on their luxuries in order to reduce their negative impact.
We want a globalised world where we are connected to everything and everyone, but we refuse to acknowledge the disadvantages of this. I think all of us feel that urge to go on with bussiness as usual to some extent, because we’re just scared of change, especially when it is for a global cause of which we can’t even fully grasp the complexity. In addition to that, we imitate the people around us and do not want to stand out and do something ‘weird’. It actually reminds me of the bystander effect, only that the person who needs help is our planet. That’s why it is so important that we get our voices heard and inspire other people.
The ‘Great Acceleration’
The ‘Great Acceleration’ has a lot do with the Anthropocene. It describes the speed up in consumption after World War II. The Holocene, a geological epoch which began around 11,700 years ago, had been characterised by a fairly stable climate until greenhouse gas emissions, ocean acidification, global warming, deforestation, land-use change, energy use and world population started rising dramatically from the industrial era onwards, using the world’s resources at an unsustainable rate.
In several of the curves on the right, there is a marked kink around 1950, which is the start of the ‘Great Acceleration’ and a potential start date for the Anthropocene as changes to the Earth System, which are beyond the range of variability of the Holocene and driven by humans, have only been taking place after this date.
Moreover, as human activities have also eroded the land surface and greatly increased the rate of sedimentation in oceans, scientists are arguing about which signal in the geological strata should be used to mark the start of the Anthropocene. The favourite candidate is a layer of radioactive nucleotides deposited by atom bomb tests after World War II, which also fits nicely with the idea that the Anthropocene started with the ‘Great Acceleration’.
Other proposals for when the Anthropocene started are the industrial revolution or even agricultural activity & land-use modification that started 8,000 years ago and has been linked to increases in atmospheric methane. It is also argued that carbon dioxide oscillations of about 10ppm in the last 1000 years are too large to be explained by solar-volcanic forcing, and that the observed carbon dioxide decreases were rather due to widespread forest-regrowth after people abandoned their farms as a result of plague outbreaks.
Lastly, the course reminded us that, no matter when the Anthropocene started, it is clear that the acceleration of human impact on the climate cannot continue on a finite planet.
Agraph that can be compared very well to the graphs above is that which shows the changes in total real GDP. It, too,shows dramatic acceleration since 1950. I do believe that we have to think about the question if capitalism can still serve us at a time when we are facing immense environmental challenges. It is hard to find an alternative, as it seems like all the economic systems we have tried out so far failed in one way or another. And the fact that the whole issue is quite a sensitive topic to talk about only makes matters worse. In my opinion, the least we have to do is change how profit and power are the primary goals of our economy and of most people at the moment. Things like environmental sustainability, strong communities, health and justice should definitely be valued much more.
Climate change mitigation & adaption
During the course, we repeatedly studied the effects of climate change on the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and we learned that it experiences strong seasonality, storms, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and salinity intrusion, which all represent threats to one of the biggest industries in the region: agriculture.
Thus, the area is in desperate need of solutions to mitigate and adapt to climate change. There is no better mitigation than to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the dangerous effects of climate change from ever happening. When it comes to adaption, there are multiple ways to improve the resilience of a community, for example through diversifying the economy of the region, educating the population, introducing salt resilient crops, and restoring mangroves (protect coastlines from erosion).
The IPCC said in a statement that intervention already underway in the delta in the form of dams will limit the flooding of the summer season and the reduced flow of the dry season. Moreover, it warns that there will likely be further intrusion of salinity into the freshwater system, which will have a significant impact on the type of fish that can be farmed. However, according to the panel, yields should not be affected, which is a reassurance to the 40 million people active in fisheries there. Still, techniques like raising fisheries above the river next to them (picture) may become more common to protect them from salinity or drought.
Furthermore, a study of current residents of the area showed that 33% have insufficient skills to adapt their present livelihoods and that 48% would not wish to move from their ancestor’s village. Residents in the city of Can Tho, who are identified as being highly vulnerable, have been shown to have an adaptive capacity of 0.4%. With the help of this imformation, it was underlined in the course that there might be social resistances towards identifying solutions to climate change and that these need to be addressed alongside any top-down implemented response.
I agree with this last point, because I think it is crucial that good communication takes place between the residents of an affected area and the group of people who want to implement changes in order to make the community more resilient to environmental impacts. Especially nowadays, when there is quite a lot of pressure to act on climate change, there is the danger of helpers not respecting the fact that the local population might have other ideas and wishes about what changes should or should not be made to their home. Even if the government or and international organisation means well, it might in fact be quite unsustainable to just push people to change certain things in their behaviour or in the infrastructure of their community. It could lead to them rejecting the foreign help completely and barely making any changes to become more resilient. Thus, I agree that a lot of attention should be paid to social resistances.
Lastly, the online course encouraged us learners to “think global, act local”, as some of the most promising collective actions are happening at the local level. We were reminded that this kind of action will determine the future of the climate for many generations to come, which means that it is crucial that we participate in every way we can.
Moreover, it mentioned the Paris agreement and said that it signified a landmark commitment to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees. I agree that the deal has a lot of potential, however, I am worried that this potential will not be used as all I have been hearing about it recently was that certain leaders want to or have already withdrawn from the deal.
In terms of concrete action, the University of Exeter mentioned what it is doing to achieve its goals of cutting the university’s emissions by 40% until 2020: draft proofing, improvement of light controls, improvement of controls on boilers, ground source heating pumps, and biomass boilers. At home and in the workplace, it was suggested that you insulate the loft, install double glazing, lower the central heating thermostat, and switch off lights when you do not need them. I would add that the best thing you can do is “reduce, refuse, reuse, repurpose, recyle” (+ repair), and to get the things you do need to buy locally. Moreover, try to use all the opportunities you get, especially nowadays with the internet, to inspire others to live more sustainablyas well.
Many people say that the smaller actions we take at home and encourage our friends to take as well are not enough to combat climate change. In terms of their direct impact today, they are probably right. In the system we live in, we largely have to wait for the richest and most powerful to join a cause until we can see the really significant results. That’s why I definitely agree that we should do things like vote for politicians concerned with the environment. Through voting, we can have a direct impact on an area much larger than that which we normally have an influence on.
However, all of that is no reason to cast aside the importance of local action. The fact is that we as individuals can best promote a cause by bringing about change on the local level first. This can have a ripple effect and cause a significant amount of people to be inspired and to take action as well. I am sure people don’t mean it this way, but when someone says that personal and local action is just a gesture without real impact, it makes me sad because it sounds like giving up, as we as individuals can hardly expect to have more of a direct impact.
I have enjoyed this online course a lot. It was very informative and helped me to understand why climate change is happening and how it is already impacting ecosystems and communities. I think the most important message to take away is that immediate and drastic changes are needed to make sure that no part of the world has to experience any devestating, irreversible impacts of climate change. To achieve this, each of us can take action by changing some of their habits and by engaging in local and online initiatives. Because remember: You may be a small part of this world, but you are not insignificant! 🙂
I just finished the third week of learning with this online course by the University of Exeter, which I found on futurelearn.com. This post is supposed to help me summarise what I have learnt, check my understanding, and make comments or ask questions. I hope that it will also be interesting or helpful to you! 🙂 (My comments and questions are in bold).
What was covered?
To put it in a nutshell, this past week, I have learnt a lot about how climate change affects the world’s ice sheets, permafrost regions and oceans and about what consequences the resulting changes might have.
Retreat & disappearance of glaciers
I learned that the world’s glaciers have shown a rapid response to global warming over the past two decades, with increased ice loss, rising flow speed, frontal retreat and thinning of the ice. In Greenland, half of the total mass loss is due to surface melt, the remainder is due to blocks of ice breaking off and forming icebergs where the glacier meets the sea (calving).
The amount of ice lost as iceberg calving is increasing as the ice sheets are spreading out faster. Glaciers spread out under their own weight. When the ice is softer because of warming, it spreads out more easily and more ice reaches the edges of the glacier, where it calves off and is lost to the ocean.
Moreover, the ice is also flowing faster because lakes of meltwater on the surface of the ice sheet can drain abruptly, because of which meltwater reaches the bed, where it has a lubricating effect on ice sheet flow. The results of this are a short-lived acceleration and more ice calving off at the margins. The lakes, which emerge because meltwater collects in topographic depressions on the surface, can drain so abruptly because they have a warming effect on the underlying ice as their surface is darker and thus has a lower albedo than the surrounding ice. The meltwater also transports heat to the interior of the ice sheet, which causes it to soften and flow even faster.
I learned that buttressing is a process which opposes spreading of the ice sheet and which is being compromised by rising temperatures. When an ice sheet spreads to the coast under its own weight, it either runs aground on a high spot in the bed, is topographically constrained, or flows over the ocean forming a floating ice shelf. When water and air temperatures increase, floating ice shelves start to melt and may be lost completely eventually. When this happens, a friction component is removed, which causes the glacier to flow faster and to lose more mass at its edges. As I had already learnt in the previous weeks, the loss of floating ice to the ocean does not contribute to sea level rise. However, more land ice being lost because of the glacier flowing faster does.
I did not fully understand why a floating ice tongue is such an important friction component for a glacier, as ice seems to float and move around so easily on water. Is that little bit of friction already enough to reduce the amount of land ice calving off at the edges of the glacier?
Normally, in the summer, half of the surface of the Greenland ice sheet naturally melts. At high elevations, most of the resulting meltwater quickly refreezes in place. Near the coast, some of it is retained by the ice sheet, the rest is lost to the ocean. Thus, it is important to note that calving, just like melting, is a natural ablation mechanism, which is not automatically evidence of climate change. Furthermore, it is still necessary to learn more about ice sheets to determine how big the influence of climate change is, as they are also influenced by other processes like changes in ocean currents or shifting of the North Atlantic pressure systems.
However, the points mentioned above show that factors like air temperature and water temperature can significantly change how much ice calves off, which is why it does make sense to see a connection between rising global temperatures and the rapid increase in ice loss from glaciers.
The online course gave multiple examples of significant and unusual calving events and of glacial retreat in the last years. One was that of the July 2012 calving event at the Helheim glacier in South East Greenland, during which 1.5 cubic kilometres of ice were lost to the ocean. 0.25 cubic kilometres of this ice had been above sea-level, which means that it contributed to sea level rise after it broke off. The force of the iceberg impacting the fjord bottom as it rotated produced an earthquake that was measured by seisometers around the world. That summer, Greenland experienced the largest melt extent in the satellite era. We were also shown pictures of the retreat of the Muir Glacier in Alaska and told that glaciers in that part of the world are not only retreating, but disappearing, which is extremely worrying when we think about the albedo feedback and sea level rise.
Determining the health of a glacier
To determine the health of a glacier, you have to look at its mass balance, which means that you have to measure the normal inputs against the normal outputs. Glaciers gain mass in their highest altitudes through snowfall, avalanches and wind-blown snow and lose mass because of calving, melting, and avalanches. The area of the glacier that gains more mass than it loses is called the accumulation zone, while the area that loses more mass than it gains is called the ablation zone. If accumulation is higher than ablation, the glacier has positive mass balance, if it is the other way around, it has a negative mass balance.
The most obvious way to measure the input and output of a glacier is to take field measurements using a stick. You can just drive a stick into the ice, see how thick it is, come back a couple of months later, and see what has changed. However, this process would have to be repeated multiple times all across the glacier to get a good amount of information, so it is much more accurate and less time consuming to use observations of the Earth from satellites or aircrafts, a method called remote sensing. This way, thickening and thinning of the ice, the retreat of the edge of the glacier, and the weight of the ice sheet can be measured. With this information, the sensitivity of the glacier to climate change can be determined.
One observation from this that was talked about in the online course is that the equilibrium line altitude is rising as more of the glacier is in net ablation. This means that as temperatures are rising, a glacier has to be located ever higher up in order to experience temperatures at which the size of its ice sheet does not decline.
Permafrost is soil in the high latitudes which remains below freezing all year round. Fifteen percent of the Northern Hemisphere is underlain by permafrost to some extent and it is so globally important because it stores around 1.6 trillion tonnes of carbon. This carbon could be released if the ground thaws, which would effectively be irreversible on relevant time scales because it has the potential to unleash a significant positive feedback mechanism (rising temperatures -> will thaw permafrost regions most (warming greatest in the Arctic) -> rapid decomposition of carbon stores -> carbon dioxide & methane released into atmosphere -> thickened blanket -> further warming -> more permafrost thaw…).
It was pointed out in the course that the Arctic has already warmed by one degree Celsius and that it has been observed that there are now thicker active layers (thawed soils above permafrost) and more lakes from melt water in permafrost regions.
Furthermore, if permafrost regions thaw, they turn into wetlands where large thermokarst lakes form that tend to be depleted in oxygen. When that is the case, decomposition in those lakes is anaerobic, which means that methane instead of carbon dioxide is released. Methane has a warming potential rougly 25 times greater than carbon dioxide.
Moreover, there are potentially 400 billion tonnes of methane hydrates (pockets of methane gas trapped within frozen water lattices that are formed at low temperatures and high pressure) deep within the permafrost regions. If only a small fraction of this is released, it could have global implications in terms of amplifying warming.
Currently, methane hydrates are only exposed along coastlines due to erosion from the sea and only eight percent of global atmospheric methane comes from permafrost regions. However, we still should not neglect the danger of it as it could trigger a vicious cycle and a runaway warming process and as some energy companies are apparently seriously looking at methane hydrates as potential fuels.
Reasons for ocean acidification
At the beginning of learning about this new topic, I was reminded of how important the oceans are not only for Earth’s biodiversity, but also for our health. They contain 99% of the living space for animals on Earth, are home to 250,000 species that we know about (there are probably a lot more), and its phytoplankton provide the oxygen for at least one in three breaths we take. Additionally, the oceans are an important source of food for us and they take up about a fourth of man-made carbon dioxide emissions.
Even though the oceans have been more acidic in the past, the rate of change was generally slow enough for organisms to adapt. The rare occasions when ocean acidification happened rapidly brought about mass extinctions of marine calcifying organisms. The chemical reactions that are leading to ocean acidification today are caused by carbon dioxide dissolving into seawater.
When carbon dioxide is taken up by the ocean , it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which is unstable and quickly dissociates (CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> HCO3– + H+, so carbon dioxide + water <=> carbonic acid <=> bicarbonate ion + hydrogen ion). The hydrogen ions have an acidifying effect on the water and as the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere increase, so does the concentration of hydrogen ions in the oceans.
The ocean has a natural buffering system for this, called the carbonate buffer. Carbonate ions, which enter the seawater through natural weathering of rocks or from the shells of dead marine animals, soak up the hydrogen ions as they are released. This has kept the pH of the oceans stable for millions of years (CO32- + H+ <=> HCO3– , so carbonate ion + hydrogen ion <=> bicarbonate ion). The bicarbonate ions have an alkalising effect on the water.
At this point, i had a question about this carbonate buffer. If the bicarbonate ions have an alkalising effect on the seawater, and if they occur together with the hydrogen ions when carbonic acid dissociates, why does this process cause ocean acidification at all? Or is the acidifying effect of the hydrogen ions stronger than the alkalising effect of the bicarbonate ions? Could that be the reason why you need extra carbonate ions to form more bicarbonate ions?
It is only explained that the processes which put carbonate ions into seawater are quite slow, which is why they cannot keep up with the rate of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere and taken up by the oceans. As a result, the oceans are acidifying. The effect of bicarbonate ions is not explained.
Furthermore, I learned that the pH of the ocean has fallen by 0.1 of a pH unit since the industrial revolution, which is equivalent to a 30% increase in the hydrogen concentration. This kind of change is a real shock to marine animals and it is only expected to become much worse, with predictions stating that there will be a 120% increase in the hydrogen concentration by the end of the century. The pH of seawater is now 8.1 and is expected to fall to 7.6 by 2100 if we continue to release carbon at the rates that are currently predicted.
Effects of ocean acidification on marine invertebrates
Marine invertebrates make up the biggest proportion of ocean biodiversity with 76%. They are very important bottom of the food chain animals, which means that any effects of climate change on them will escalate up the food chain to the fish that we rely on as food. A large number of marine invertebrates have calcium carbonate skeletons. Once formed, these structures are quite vulnerable to dissolution unless they are surrounded by seawater saturated with calcium carbonate. As the seawater becomes under saturated with carbonate ions because they are soaking up hydrogen ions, there is a tendency for the calcium carbonate skeletons of marine invertebrates to start dissolving and there is much less carbonate available for the forming of new structures.
Moreover, as all organisms produce carbon dioxide when they respire, they all have to get rid of it in order to prevent becoming acidic. The buffering system in us organisms is much the same as that of seawater: we can use bicarbonate inside our cells to buffer any acidosis from increased carbon dioxide. However, some animals are much better at controlling their internal carbon dioxide levels than others and there are some marine animals that are quite susceptible to having internal acidosis from ocean acidification.
Furthermore, ocean acidification can also impact the reproduction of marine invertebrates, which is a very sensitive part of any animal’s life cycle. Marine invertebrates reproduce by releasing eggs & sperm directly into the seawater, where fertilisation takes place. Eggs and sperm are very small and less able to control the conditions inside them, which is why they can easily be affected by more acidic conditions in the ocean. There is also a problem for sea urchin larvae, who have to grow tiny calcium carbonate shells in order to swim and feed properly. Their shells do not form properly when exposed to conditions expected for the end of the century. The result will be that much less sea urchin larvae will make it to adult phases, which will also affect the populations of other marine animals.
When it comes to the implications ocean acidification has for marine invertebrates, there are still a lot of questions that are being asked. For example, it would be interesting to know which species will be most affected and which might cope and how. Additionally, scientists are not sure how ocean acidification might interact with other stresses like environmental pollution and chemical contamination.
Next, I learned that most of the heat trapped by the thickening blanket of greenhouses gases (over 90% of excess heat in recent decades) is going into the oceans, which is warming them from the top down. Most of it is being absorbed by the top 700 metres. The result of this is thermal expansion and sea level rise.
Moreover, the heat stress on coral reef environments may lead to bleaching, where corals lose their colour because their photosynthetic symbiont is expelled and starve. I was given an example of an extreme bleaching event which happened after the 2016/17 El Niño event. 90% of corals in the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef bleached. The IPCC warns that two degrees Celsius of global warming (which we are currently on track for) will result in the loss of 99% of warm water corals by 2100. When a reef is tipped into a declining state, algae may take over, which can have a range of negative environmental impacts because of the amount of oxygen they use and of toxins they produce.
Ocean pollution was briefly mentioned, too, even though it is not strictly related to climate change. It is probably the human effect on the environment that most people know and are passionate about because it is the one that is most visible. Examples for ocean pollution are oil spills like the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and plastic pollution, which both have devestating effects on the marine environment.
Oil as well as plastic can kill marine animals by being ingested by them, by trapping them, or by suffocating them. In one study, 90% of sea birds apparently had plastic in their stomachs and research from the University of Exeter shows that plastic micro-beads, which are found in everyday cosmetics, are eaten by tiny marine animals and enter the food chain. As a result, a plate of six oysters can have around 50 plastic micro-beads in it. I learned that there is no marine ecosystem where we have looked so far that does not contain this micro-plastic, not even in the Arctic: 1 litre of Arctic sea ice has been found to contain 12,000 pieces of micro-plastic!
Lastly, I learned a little more about this topic that has been continuously coming up throughout the online course: sea-level rise. It was discussed how both sea-level rise and ocean acidification could have severe economic impacts on communities, especially on poorer communities on the coast. Sea-level rise is already impacting people’s ability to have homes and to grow food where they live near the coast, as houses and fields are being flooded.
The IPCC predicts that sea-levels will rise anywhere between 26 to 98cm until 2100, with there probably being a lot of regional variations. The most notable short-term impact of sea-level rise is likely to be salinity intrusion, where salty water from the ocean is able to infiltrate the groundwater further inland. This groundwater is used for agriculture and is a very important source for drinking water in many parts of the world. Thus, there are plans underway in some areas to combine hard mitigation solutions like dykes, embankments and dams with soft adaption solutions like education, relocation and salt-tolerant crops.
Another economic impact of sea-level rise will be that on the tourism industry, as the shorelines are already starting to retreat. The income from this industry is crucial for a lot of developing countries that have a coast. Thus, sea-level rise might hit them very hard economically, in multiple ways.
At the same time, ocean acidification and ocean warming might have negative effects on fisheries as fish populations might drastically decline and many people who have the choice might stop eating fish as marine animals ingest more and more plastic.
This week has again shown me how important it is that we reduce our use of fossil fuels dramatically and as fast as possible. It is maybe easy for us to underestimate the role the Earth’s ice sheets and oceans play in our well-being, as they are not our typical environments, but it is a fact that they have an immense impact on the answer to the question whether we are or are not able to survive on the planet. The lifestyle of excess and unnecessary consumption of one group of people on the planet is having a devastating effect not only on ecosystems but also on other peoples’ livelihoods.
We have some very good answers to the question “What can we do?”, some regarding technology, some social and economic changes, some addressing personal lifestyle. It is largely up to the wealthier part of the population, mostly people in developed countries, to decide whether they really want to live the way they are living if it is costing the planet’s ecosystems and millions of fellow humans. Each of us should make a decision and act on it, because each of us can actually make a difference. Because remember: You may be a small part of this world, but you are not insignificant!
When I was first told that I might be a perfectionist, I vehemently denied it, citing my reason as “not being very neat at all”. I knew that wasn’t really what she meant – but in that moment, I refused to believe it. I tried to dismiss it.
However, to my surprise, the idea kept creeping back to me – and as the days passed, I realized that, in a strange sort of way, she did have a point.
Every night, I would replay
every single event I deemed as a “mistake” in my mind over and over again, in
all its horrific glory – like a broken record tape I had absolutely no control
over. And I would fall into the all-too-familiar cycle of overthinking about it
until it nearly drove me crazy.
And of course, this
kind of thinking only brings you misery; and suddenly life starts to become a
collection of all the mistakes that you’ve ever made.
So how do I get
Your mindset is a
powerful tool – it can either be your problem or your solution. But changing it
is easier said than done, and that’s why the first ingredient is time. This might
seem slightly obvious – but don’t expect things to magically get better as soon
as you set out to change things. Be patient with yourself.
The important thing is to avoid the temptation to fall into the pit hole of negativity. It’s so, so easy to fall into the abyss of overthinking. Of course, it’s hard to cut negativity out of your mind altogether completely. If a not-so-positive thought finds its way up to the surface, chances are, if you immediately try to force it down, it’ll probably come back to haunt you, whether you like it or not. (kind of like a yo-yo, just not as fun.)
Recognize that point
where you know you’re about to start overthinking. Pause – acknowledge it.
Okay, so you’re feeling this way, and that’s perfectly valid. Try to
rationalize what you’re overthinking about in your head, as if you were giving
advice to a friend. Here’s an example: say you’re worried about how your
teacher surely hates you now, and now you’re thinking about all the
consequences that could possibly bring. You can’t help but start panicking. Your
life is ruined, and you can’t go to school now and is there a way to bury
yourself and never ever return –
know that your life is definitely not ruined in the long run, and that you
probably have to go back to school. But in the moment, your emotions engulf
you, and you can’t think of anything else.
So instead, you could
try to think things through as logically as you can.
How do you know that
your teacher definitely hates you? Are you a mind reader?
Is there any use
worrying about it now?
Could you be doing
other things right now? Things that make you happy?
Yep. Like watching
that TV show you really like or talking with your friends.
If you can feel the negative thoughts pushing their way back up again, gnawing at you, trying to be noticed, remember this: the past is the past. It’s happened, and now you’re moving on to better things. It’s time to stop living your life in the past. 🙂
And finally? Love
yourself a little more. You’ll find yourself enjoying life a lot more after
realizing that you’re only human – a human that makes mistakes, just like
I have just finished the second week of learning with this free online course by the University of Exeter which I found on futurelearn.com. This post is supposed to help me summarise and remember what I have learned and to ask some questions or make comments about it. For everyone who has already finished this part of the online course, I would love it if you could read this post and tell me if you think I got anything wrong. If you only want to read my comments/questions, they are in bold. Thank you for visiting my website, I hope you enjoy! 🙂
What was covered?
This week was packed with lots of interesting information. To put it in a nutshell, I learned about ancient and recent past as well as contemporary climate change, the differences and similarities between them, the natural and anthropogenic forcing factors driving it and the key indicators that show our climate is changing very quickly nowadays.
Ancient past climate change
At the beginning of the week, I was taught that the Earth´s climate has self-regulated since the planet´s formation 4.5 billion years ago. Even though the sun was 25 to 30 percent less bright shortly after the birth of the solar system, there is evidence that Earth was as warm, if not warmer than today. With the blanket of warming gases we have in our atmsphere today, the Earth would have been frozen back then. Thus, there must have been a much higher atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases present, especially of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
Now the question is how all of that carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere as the sun became brighter. The online course explains that this was possible because of a process called chemical weathering. Chemical weathering:carbon dioxide from the atmosphere forms weak carbonic acid in rainwater -> dissolves silicate rocks when it reaches land -> washes into oceans as bicarbonate ions-> organisms use carbon for their shells -> formation of carbonate rocks from shells deposited at the bottom of the ocean (carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is transferred through the hydrosphere to be stored in the lithosphere!)
Moreover, the chemical weathering process is part of a negative feedback mechanism also involving temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: higher temperatures -> more chemical weathering -> lower atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide -> lower temperatures -> less chemical weathering…
At this point, I did not quite understand how temperature and chemical weathering are linked. However, a fellow learner on the course suggested that higher temperatures mean that more water evaporates, which causes more rainfall and thus more weak carbonic acid coming down with it.
Another riddle next to that about how atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were reduced as the sun became brighter is that about why the Earth froze over 2.2 billion and 700 million years ago and how this was reversed again. I learned that the reason for the occurrence of these two events is the positive ice albedo feedback triggered by the growth of continents and the subsequent higher rate of chemical weathering: growth of continents -> more chemical weathering (more rocks for carbonic acid to react with) -> lower atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to warm planet -> cooler temperatures -> more ice -> higher albedo -> even cooler -> more ice…
When the cooling is sufficient for the ice cover to reach the tropics, there is a tipping point and Earth freezes over completely. So how was this reversed? Because the planet was covered in ice, chemical weathering could not take place. However, volcanoes kept pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and it started building up as it had nowhere to escape. Consequently, more and more heat was trapped by this thick blanket of carbon dioxide and the ice at the equator melted. The following positive feedback (less ice -> lower albedo -> hotter -> less ice) runs away in the other direction and brings about a superheated planet without ice caps if the climate is not able to stabilise itself in time.
This part of the online course taught me a very important lesson. We often think of the Earth´s systems as being extremely good at remaining in balance and maintaning the climate which supports life on the planet. Consequently, many people do not believe that our actions, like the burning of fossil fuels, could really have a significant impact on the Earth´s climate. Looking at the past and realising that the climate has key instabilities and feedback mechanisms that can really destabalise the entire system once they are triggered , can help us to realise how important it is to change our actions in order to ensure that we do not end up with a superheated or frozen planet anytime soon.
Furthermore, the online course talked about how the Earth orbits the sun in the habitable zone, where water occurs as a liquid. As the sun will get brighter, this habitable zone will move further outwards and Earth will come ever closer to the inner border of this zone. This will cause rising temperatures and more water to evaporate. The water vapour in the atmosphere will become very effective at trapping more heat and eventually, the oceans will have evaporated completely and our planet will see the end of the biosphere. Luckily, the sun is only getting brighter very slowly.
Last in this section about ancient past climate change, I found out about the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), which describes a rapid jump in global temperature about 55 million years ago. Typically, changes of 100s of parts per million in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide take place over the course of hundreds of years, which allows life to adapt to the changes in climate. The PETM saw a 5 degree celsius increase in global temperatures over the course of 20,000 years. Oceans acidified and warmed by 6 degrees celsius. The warming was caused by a rapid release of greenhouse gases likely due to volcanism triggering a number of destabilising positive feedback mechanisms. Moreover, the initial rise in temperatures led to the thawing of methane hydrates, because of which large amounts of methane were released into the atmosphere, where they caused even more warming.
Recovery from the PETM was possible largely because of chemical weathering, which removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and helped neutralise the oceans. I was initially not sure why chemical weathering would neutralise oceans, because I had only learned about carbonic acid reacting with silicate rocks and the product being washed into the oceans. I thought it should acidify them further, if only slightly. However, I researched a bit and it seems that the bicarbonate ions, which result from the reaction of carbonic acid with the rocks, have an alkalizing effect in the water.
The PETM had similar effects on life on Earth as contemporary climate change, for example extinctions, sea-level rise, movement of ecosystems, destruction of coral reefs etc. However, during this event, our planet experienced warming of about 0.025 degrees celsius per 100 years. Nowadays, warming is on track for a 1 degree celsius increase per 100 years. It took the climate 100,000 years to recover from warming during the PETM. How long would it take the Earth to recover from contemporary climate change?
I have to say that I thought learning about the PETM was one of the most interesting, if not the most interesting part of the week. It was an unprecedented event which saw an abnormally rapid increase in global temperatures. Comparing this event, which had horrible effects on ecosystems and from which recovery took 100,000 years, to contemporary climate change really is a massive warning to us. Warming nowadays is ten times more rapid and recovery could take hundreds of thousands of years, especially if we tip the methane hydrate reservoirs into an irreversible positive feedback. We should definitely learn from past events like this, which show us that there is really no natural, non-human related explanation for the changes in climate we experience today.
Recent past climate change
At the start of learning about more recent past climate change, I was told that climate changes on time scales of thousands of years are highly predictable because they are connected to the way the Earth moves around the sun. Milutin Milankovitch described how the shape of the Earth´s orbit around the sun (circular or elliptical), the tilt of the Earth´s axis (between 21.4 & 24.5 degrees) and the wobbling of the Earth´s axis (like a spinning top) determine how much energy different parts of the Earth receive from the sun throughout the year and thus what the climate is like.
However, the course explained that the causes for climate changes on shorter time scales are much more unpredictable. Thus, evidence is needed to asses the impact of different influences. This evidence can come from tree rings, ice cores, pollen, ocean and lake sediments, or corals.
Tree rings: Width of ring -> rate of photosynthesis that year-> amount of sunshine during summer of that year -> temperature during summer (need of cross-dating with other trees and their ancestors -> wood from floor of forests/lakes/peat bogs)
Ice cores: carry composition of ancient atmosphere trapped in tiny bubbles -> ratio of deuterium (2H) to hydrogen (1H) & of oxygen isotopes (18O : 16O -> have different weight); 18O harder to evaporate & preferentially condensed out of atmosphere before air reaches poles; colder climate: these effects are amplified -> ice even more depleted in 18O (and in deuterium)
Pollen: uniquely shaped to specific species; each plant has very specific needs -> soil acidity, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations & temperatures, precipitation levels… -> analysing pollen grain from layers of soil to reconstruct past climate
Ocean & lake sediments: 1)Ocean: ratio 18O : 16O in carbonate shells of marine organisms (colder climate -> more ice, less water evaporating -> even less evaporation of 18O than otherwise -> ocean more enriched in 18O); 2)Lake: layers like tree rings -> thickness of layers & 18O : 16O ratio -> information about past climate, e.g. amount of meltwater entering glacial lake each year, temperature, sources of precipitation, evaporation from lake
I learned that climate data from the sources listed above can be matched to events and cycles related to natural forcing factors like volcanism (It was interesting to learn that volcanic eruptions cause cooling, at least short-term, because the ash clouds block out solar radiation). However, these natural factors fail to explain the changes in climate our planet has experienced over the last 100 to 150 years. When comparing a graph showing the increase in global temperature over that period to a graph showing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, one can see that there is an obvious connection between the two and conclude that carbon dioxide is the major cause for warming today.
Indicators for contemporary climate change
Lastly, I found out about the fact that climate data is collected very widely and reliably nowadays thanks to new technology and that this huge amount of data allows scientist to see the signs for contemporary climate change very clearly. The online course introduced me to the following key indicators:
Global mean temperature over land & ocean: most recent decade warmest on record; Earth now 1 degree celsius warmer than in pre-industrial times; warming not the same everywhere: higher latitude areas (e.g. Arctic) experience more warming & land warms faster than oceans; intervals of slower/faster warming (e.g. slowdown after 1997/8 El Ninõ event, but after slowdown: temperatures rising at accelerated rate)
Sea ice extent: temperature rises are highest in Arctic (roughly twice as fast as global average) -> since 1980: surface of Arctic sea ice in summer fallen from about 4 million km2 to about 1.5 million km2; especially concerning because of ice albedo feedback; global sea ice extent 2016 lowest on record
Frequency of extreme weather events: warmer atmosphere holds more moisture; data hints global averaged precipitation may have increased over last century, is expected to increase in the future; precipitation unevenly distributed -> contrast between wet & dry regions will increase; uncertainty for future of ecosystems & societies, especially with growing population
Sea-level: since 1880: steady rise in sea levels; about half of the rise due to thermal expansion, half due to melting of land ice; melting sea ice does not contribute to sea level rise -> floating ice displaces same volume of water as if it were liquid.
At this point, I had one last question, this time about the situation in Antarctica. During the online course, it was said that it is much colder in Antarctica than in the Arctic, that the ice there is not melting and that the area is thus not contributing to sea level rise. However, in an article on the NASA website, it says that “Antarctica lost about 127 billion tons of ice per year during the same time period (1993-2016)”. Maybe scientists just are not completely sure about what is going on there yet?
The message I take from this past week of learning with the online course is that evidence from sources like tree rings, ice cores or weather records as well as the comparison between contemporary and past climate change shows that natural forcing factors are not the explanation for the changes we see today. The difference between the PETM and contemporary climate change is not only that change is happening much faster this time, but also that humans are causing it and that we are aware of our responsibility as well as of the solutions to the problems we have caused.
If we do not want what happened during the PETM to happen again, we really have to change something about the way we live and about the primary goals our societies and economies are after. They should not be profit and power because that harms our environment as well as a large portion of the human population.Each of us can make a decision on how they want to impact the environment and other people, and that decision is important. Because remember: You may be a small part of this world, but you are not insignificant!
Currently, I am taking a free online course by the University of Exeter on Climate Change. You can find this course on futurelearn.com. I want to share some of the new, interesting stuff that I am learning and my reflections on it on this blog in order to exchange with other learners on the course and to maybe inspire others to learn more about Climate Change. If you have not yet heard of this online course, please check it out as it is very professional and offers you great material to learn with. This post is only meant to help me remember what I have learnt and to maybe find gaps in my understanding. If you already learned the content of the first week of the online course, I would be delighted if you were able to take the time to check and see if you think I understood it correctly. If you do not really feel like doing that and are only here for some of my questions or comments, please look at the paragraphs in bold. 🙂
What was covered in week 1?
I have just finished the first week of learning with the online course and so far, I think it has given me a good basic understanding of what climate actually is and of why it is changing. The first week covered the key principles of climate change, the difference between climate and weather, types of greenhous gases, feedbacks and self-regulation and how humans have an influence on these systems.
Key principles of climate change
I have learned that the sun´s radiation reaches the earth in short waves which the molecules in the atmosphere let through. Some of it is then absorbed by the earth´s surface and the rest is re-emitted back toward space in long waves. This long-wave radiation can be absorbed by the greenhouse gas molecules in the atmosphere (water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone) and then re-emitted toward earth. Only some heat energy escapes into space or is not re-emitted by the molecules. This way, the radiation from the sun gets partly trapped in the atmosphere.
Furthermore, based on this, it is argued that we should not use the analogy of a greenhouse to explain this effect, but that of a blanket. The reason the greenhouse is warm is because it prevents airflow and thus traps the heat which it got through radiation from the sun. As this cannot be compared to molecules re-emiting heat radiation back to earth, the greenhouse analogy is not an ideal one. However, I have to say that I do not quite understand why the blanket metaphor would be better. Firstly, it completely leaves out the initial source of the heat – the sun. Secondly, I thought that blankets do just the same thing as greenhouses to keep the inside warm: prevent airflow and thus trap heat. Consequently, I have to say that both metaphors confuse me more than they help me. Maybe somebody could explain to me why the blanket effect is the better analogy in the comment section? It would be much appreciated 🙂
Another thing I was taught this week is that the “albedo” is the fraction of radiation which is reflected back from the earth´s surface. How much is reflected depends on which kind of surface we are looking at. For example, ice has a very high albedo while the ocean has a low albedo as it absorbs a lot of radiation by being a dark surface. Overall, the earth has an albedo of about 0.3, which means that it reflects about 30% and absorbs about 70% of the radiation which reaches it. Without the greenhouse gases in our atmosphere and only with that 70% absorbtion rate, the average temperature on earth would be -18 degrees celsius. Thus, these gases are crucial for life on earth to exist. Only when human activity tips the balance between them and non-greenhouse gases in the atmosphere do they become dangerous. This was something I did not have any idea of previously to the course and it was really interesting to find out about the role the right amount of greenhouse gases plays in making life possible. Also, it has shown me how dangerous it is that sea ice is melting as this is turning into a vicious cycle: less sea ice -> more of the earth´s surface is dark blue ocean -> lower albedo (more absorbtion of heat radiation) -> warmer temperatures -> less sea ice…
The greenhouse gases I was introduced to in the online course are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. I was surprised to find out that carbon dioxide makes up “only” about 0.04% (400 parts per million) of the earth´s atmosphere. The other greenhouse gases beside it are present in even smaller amounts. The majority of the atmosphere is made up of Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%).
However, this most certainly does not mean that we do not have to worry about the amount of greenhouse gases present in our atmosphere today. Carbon dioxide is released naturally through the carbon cycle but it is also a very long lived gas, which is why it is so important to maintain the fine balance between it and the non-greenhouse gases. Sadly, human acitvity is tipping that balance. The online course taught me that human activity has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide by more than a third since the Industrial Revolution.
Another long-lived gas which is added to the atmosphere by human activity is nitrous oxide. It makes up only a small fraction of the atmosphere, but is about 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Human activity, like the increased fertilisation of farm fields with nitrogen, has increased the atmospheric concentration of the gas by about 15%.
Methane and ozone are more short-lived gases. However, methane is about 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide and has increased almost 3-fold due to human activity and ozone, even though it is not only short-lived but also quite scarce as a greenhouse gas, is about 1000 times more potent than carbon dioxide. I thought it was very interesting to find out that this ozone is different to that which makes up the protective layer around the earth, protecting life from ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The greenhouse gas ozone is formed near the surface of the earth when vehicle emissions react in the sunlight.
Furthermore, it was completely new to me to hear of water vapour as a greenhouse gas. I was told that it is the most abundant one in the atmosphere and that its increasing presence there is caused indirectly by human activity. The reason for this is that the thicker blanket of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, emitted because of human activity, makes for higher temperatures which cause more water to evaporate.
What I took from this was that it is absolutely crucial to dramatically reduce the amount of greenhouse gases which we emit. In my opinion, we will not achieve this solely through technology like electric cars or solarpanels. These changes have to go hand in hand with changes to the lifestyle of excess of so many people. I am planning on writing a post about “green-growth vs. de-growth” in the future, but let me already spoiler you here: I do not think that green-growth is going to solve the environmental problems facing us today.If we want the earth´s temperature to support the wonderful variety of life we know in the future, we cannot go on with our neverending consumption.
Difference between weather and climate
This is a pretty straightforward one but I still feel like weather and climate get mixed up way too often. Donald Trump´s tweet “Wouldn´t be bad to have a little of that good old fashioned Global Warming right now!” when there were quite severe snow storms in the U.S. during winter is only one example. Many people question climate change because they believe that it is not possible to have some colder days or even snow during the year if the climate is warming. However, this is not true and only shows how important it is to understand the difference between weather and climate. This difference was explained very well in the online course. They said that weather is the elements we see daily and something that can change very quickly, whereas changes in climate are usually measured over a period of 30 years.
Moreover, I was shown a map and reminded of the different climate zones there are. The blue on the map shows the polar zones, the green the temperate, the yellow the arid, the red the tropical, the orange the meditarranean and the black the mountain zones.
Feedbacks and self-regulation
Lastly, I was taught to see the climate as a system encompassing the atmosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere and the lithosphere. Moreover, the course reminded me that there are a series of cycles that link these different components together and that are very important to the earth´s climate. These cycles include so-called feedbacks. The three feedbacks I was introduced to are the water-vapour-feedback, the ice-albedo-feedback and the radiation-feedback. The first two are positive feedbacks, the last one is a negative feedback (positive & negative in the mathematical sense).
Water vapour feedback: increased temperature -> increased evaporation of water -> increased amount of water vapour in the atmosphere -> increased amount of radiation re-emitted to earth´s surface -> increased temperature…
Ice albedo feedback: increased temperature -> ice melting -> more surface made up of dark blue ocean -> lower albedo (more absorption of heat radiation) -> increased temperature -> ice melting…
Radiation feedback: the hotter a body the more heat it radiates, the more heat a body radiates the colder it gets
Something this part of the online course definitely taught me is how important it is not to disrupt the earth´s natural systems on a grand scale, as this can result in a global vicious cycle. And soon, we may not be able to reverse the damage done by this vicious cycle anymore. An article on the UN´s website that a friend brought to my attention recently underlines this point very well and really shows how scary and how real this scenario is.
Thank you so much for taking the time to read this blog post! It took me much longer than I thought it would `:) . I want to repeat how much I like this online course and how much of a professional impression it has already made on me. I recommend you check out futurelearn.com if you have not already. This blog post probably shows you how much you can learn on that website in only a couple of hours. And again: Do not feel discouraged by how big of a challenge climate change is. You CAN make a difference. Because remember: You may be a small part of this world, but you are not insignificant!
My best friend´s birthday is coming up soon so I started thinking about the gift I could give to her a while ago. She is turning 18 so I wanted it to be something very special and personal. Suddenly, the idea of writing her 365 notes for every day of the year popped into my head and I knew that it was the perfect thing to do.
It was definitely a lot of work, but that only makes me more excited to give it to her soon. I thought I would share this with you in case you have been wondering about the perfect gift for a friend, too.
Basically, I came up with seven categories, one for each day of the week. All categories except one contain 52 notes. The seventh one contains one more to get to 365 in total. The categories I went with are:
quotes about friendship
hopes and wishes for the future
First, you should start a new word document for every category and choose the different colours you want to use. Then, you can start making the lists. Take your time for this. It will stress you out very fast if you try to do it in a couple of days. Finding 52 things to put into every category can be quite challenging, but I can assure you that you will get there if this present is for someone you know well and like a lot. It took me a little more than two weeks and I think it would have been better for me had I given myself some more time.
When you are done making the lists, you can print them out. To make sure that the front and the back of the pages are colourful, you will have to insert a blank page in between every one of your full pages and one at the end of each document. Many printers will print the pages in white at first, even if you have chosen a background colour under “design”. To make them come out in colour, you have to change your preferences. This is very easy and if you have not already done something like this, there is a short tutorial on it on YouTube.
When the pages are all printed out, you just cut them into strips, one for each note and then start folding them. This can become really annoying after a while, so take your time, and trust me, it will be worth it in the end.
Now you have 365 notes, divided into seven categories, nicely colour coded. The only thing left to do is to mix them and then put them into some kind of container. I have seen many people put them into huge glass jars, which looks very nice. I did not have one of those at home and just decided to put them into that cute suprise gift box you saw in the beginning. Maybe I will still change that, but I also like the way it looks now.
Why do I love this idea so much?
I think that this question can be answered very quickly. Writing 365 notes for a friend is a present in which you put a lot of time, effort and thought. Thus, it is one that will truly show your friend how much they mean to you. Moreover, it encourages them to be positive, mindful and thankful every single day of the year.
Writing 365 notes for a friend is in my eyes a great present, which shows them how much they mean to you and encourages them to be mindful and positive each day of the year. If you have a friend for whose birthday you are still looking for a present, I highly recommend this to you. It is a lot of work, so you should definetely give yourself enough time for it, but when you are done, it is really satisfying to see the result. Giving this present to my friend is something I am really looking forward to. I used seven categories for the notes: compliments, challenges, memories, wishes for the future, happy facts, quotes about friendship and motivational quotes.
If you decide to try this out too, please tell us how it went and how your friend reacted. It could truly have a positive impact on their life. Because remember: You may be a small part of this world, but you are not insignificant!
I do not know about you, but I often feel overwhelmed by the amount of information we have access to nowadays because of the internet. I want to be well informed about what is going on in the world, but there are simply to many news outlets and too many articles and I cannot decide on what is important and what is not. Recently, this made me feel so discouraged that I decided I had to find a way to read the news and stay informed about the things most relevant to me without having to comb through unbelievable amounts of information.
If you happen to be a perfectionist like that, who just wants to be able to absorb all the relevant information in as little time as possible, you probably know, like me, that this kind of expectation for yourself can be really distressing and exhausting. This is why I want to share with you my journey to having a more relaxed relationship with the daily news. Maybe this blog post will inspire you to try it yourself.
Anxiety happens when you feel like you have to figure out everything all at once. Breathe. You are strong. You got this. Take it day by day.
The first thing you have to realise is that what you are worrying about is not an insurmountable and not even a very important issue. Believe me, I have been so overwhelmed by all the information available to me, I have cried about it. All because it triggered in me the feeling that I would never be able to keep track of everything going on in the world. Somehow, seeing all these articles, photos, documentaries, interviews… made me feel like I was not good enough.
When I think about it right now, it sounds like I was way too overdramatic. Now that I am starting to get over this problem I had with the news, it almost seems ridiculous that I was crying to myself about not being able to read about all the depressing things going on in the world – because, sadly, the news mostly show us the negative stuff.
However, I know how real this feeling of being overwhelmed and sad was and it is not totally gone. I still feel it creeping up on me sometimes. And in that moment, it does not feel ridiculous at all. On the contary, feeling like one´s not good enough is a horribe feeling.
But I hope that, if you have the same problem as me, you can start to see that this is not about you not being smart or informed enough. There is just too much information and there is absolutely no need for you to know all of it. Informing yourself about what is going on in the world should not feel like an obligation. You should do it because you want to read about the things you are interested in – and only about these.
Think about what you want to read
You have to find what sparks a light in you so that you in your own way, can illuminate the world.
What is important to you? What are the headlines and news stories that stick with you? What would you not want to miss?
I think it is really sad if we just consume the news as quickly as possible, not really paying attention to what we are reading. If we do this, and I have done it myself for a long time, it only shows that we are not interested in what we are reading. And when we are not interested, we do not remember it. Thus, trying to get informed about the world in this way is simply a waste of time. The only thing it does is make you unhappy.
Consequently, it is crucial that you find the topics that you are interested in and the news outlets that give you the best information on them. Of course, it is always good to compare news outlets and to sometimes read articles about other topics to broaden your horizon. However, never make this an obligation for yourself. If you force it, it will not be effective.
I personally like Aljazeera a lot. They give me information on the most pressing issues and conflicts around the world. As I am interested in Sustainable Development, for which peace is a key factor, this kind of news is important. I look at the most recent headlines on their very nicely organised website every morning and click only on those that really interest me. If I have time, I will additionally watch some documentary or interview on a topic I am particularly interested in while I make myself lunch. This way, I am aware of the most important world news and I can become very well informed on those stories that are important to me. And this way, they stick with me.
Spend less time on the news and more on making your own experiences
As I have already said, only spend time on those news that you think bring value to your life. This does not mean reading only about the positive things. It just means that the news should become more of a thought-provoking impulse for you, something that intrigues you so much that you spend time on critically thinking about it. This is the only way news can become valuable for you.
The information that will stick with you the most are the experiences that you make yourself. I am not saying that you have to leave home and travel the world for this. Intriguing and enlightening experiences can be had everywhere. Everyone has a story to tell and it always feels more valuable if you hear a story from a person right in front of you than if you just spend a couple of seconds on reading a headline.
You do not have to spend hours every day reading or watching the news to be `well informed´. I mean, what does that even signify? With all the information available today, who could possibly say which information is necessary to be well informed and which is not? You do not have to spend hours every day reading or watching the news and you definetely do not have to do it to please anyone or to be `good enough´.
Try to find out what kinds of news stories are important to you. It is not worth it spending time on articles that do not interest or touch you because they will not stick with you. As soon as you stop consuming the news and start using it as a tool to broaden you knowledge on the topics you find intriguing, you will stop feeling discouraged by all the information. You will find that most of it is not important at all. Because, in the end, who do you want to please with this endless race to be `well informed´? The only person, or at the very least the primary person you should want to please when learning something is yourself. So why force yourself to comb through this mountain of information that only makes you unhappy? The news should inspire you to learn more about the world and they should make you feel empowered to do something about the sad stories that are told from all over the world. Because remember: you may be a small part of this world, but you are not insignificant!
Today, I came across this picture and a video on the amazing YouTube channel Pick Up Limes and both reminded me of something that I really struggle with and as this blog was created so that I could open up a little more and maybe even inspire or help some other people, I figured I should maybe write a little bit about it.
Today is a gift
Maybe you have already read or heard the phrase `Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mistery, today is a gift, that´s why it´s called The Present´. I love it because it reminds me every time of how useless all the negative thoughts are that occupy my mind. Surely, many people can identify with that picture at the beginning, even though the thoughts that continually distract us from being present might be very different.
My personal problem is that I think too much about the future, that my mind is always making plans, always expecting me to do more and more. I can never really appreciate when I have achieved something. Maybe I have broken a habit that made me feel bad or finished a work-intensive project for school or I have learned about a completely new topic because of a good book or an online course. But somehow, I cannot appreciate that. I admire all the people who get things done, who set themselves a goal and achieve it, however I never notice when I do that myself. My mind is constantly occupied with finding the next challenge, the next project, the next big piece of work. The thought always is: `If I do this, then I will finally feel like I am good enough´.
If I do this…then I will finally feel like I am good enough
However, no matter what I do, I never get that feeling. On the one hand, that is because I compare myself with others, particularly with other people who are about my age who already reach and inspire so many people, who seem to have a big impact and at the same time to be completely at peace with themselves. In comparison to that, I sometimes feel like my life does not make sense, like what I do will never have a big and positive enough impact to `pay back´ the world for having allowed me to be here.
Maybe all of this sounds crazy to you, maybe even unthankful for all the opportunities I have. And I get it. It is just very hard to fight those negative thoughts and feelings. They are like a big, dark wave that swallows everything positive. Maybe some others can identify with what I have just described and I hope that, with this blog post, I can make you feel a little bit less alone and a little more important.
No matter if you are constantly distracted by thoughts about the future, like I am, or by thoughts about the past, you might wish to let go of them, to be more present and more thankful for every moment. Very often nowadays, on the internet, people present to you these solutions that are supposed to work wonders on every single one of us. That is not how it works. We are all very different when it comes to how and where we find happiness, but I think we all want to find it. And if you are like me, you want a list of things to do, and a schedule for exactly when to do what and you want the entire `recipe for happiness´ to work as fast as possible.
I am only now starting to realise that that is not how it is going to work, that I am not going to be happy if I establish the `perfect´ routine, including waking up ridiculously early, doing yoga, eating a bunch of berries, reading a huge load of books in different languages even though I might not even like the story, and at the same time squeezing in as much school work, online courses and voluntary work as possible. Even though doing some of these things might make you or me feel really good about ourselves, what is important is that we actually want to do them, that we feel like they bring value to our lives. An that is what I never understood over the past couple of years where I stubbornly tried to improve myself while actually ruining my happines.
I have always been a planner and an organiser and I could never help looking at the clock every ten minutes to make sure I was on schedule. And the sad thing about this was, that I was doing it even on the weekends or during the holidays, that all the things I `had to do´ were things that I forced upon myself and that I often did not enjoy them in the slightest. I do enjoy reading, learning languages, and informing myself about sustainability and the environment. But I also enjoy dancing, spending time with family and friends and going on walks. The effect of my obsession with becoming `good enough´ was that I forced myself to spend so much time doing certain things that I had at some point enjoyed that they started frustrating me and making me sad. At the same time, I was completely neglecting other things that bring me joy, like spending time with my family or dancing.
`Follow your heart´ might be hackneyed, but nothing could be more true
Eventually, all of this brought me to the point where I am now and I can honestly tell you that I am exhausted and do not at all feel like I am good enough or happy. Over the past months, I have stopped doing what I enjoyed and what I felt like doing and replaced it with a strict routine and schedule that have only made me feel less significant and less valuable.
What I am planning to do to get my mindfulness, my positivity, my love for life back is to start spending my days without constantly looking at the clock and with doing exactly what I feel will bring me joy in that moment. If you find yourself in a similar situation as me, I want to tell you that I understand, that I know how hard it can be to have all these expectations for yourself. We might not know each other but if we share this feeling of never being good enough, this feeling of emptiness and insignificance, we share a very heavy burden and we can try to overcome it together.
Try spending some time not looking at the clock, your schedule, or social media. Spend some time with yourself and with the people you love doing the things you love. Go outside, dance like nobody is watching, laugh and read a book or watch a movie you love. Life is too precious and too beautiful to be spent with toxic thoughts. YOU are too precious and too beautiful to let life slip through your fingers as fast as it often does without having enjoyed the little but meaningful moments.
I know it is hard sometimes to let go of all the negative thoughts that occupy our minds, whether they are about the past or the future. In this blog post, I have tried to open up a little, to tell you about my problem with always thinking that I am not good enough, that whatever I do will never suffice to have a big, positive impact and to make me happy. Some of you might be able to relate to that, others might more often be occupied with thoughts and regrets from the past. What we all have in common is that our minds make us forget about the present, about the beautiful things that are happening right in front of us and that we can be a part of. If we think too much about what we want to do or who we want to be in the future, we might miss ever having a real future at all, one in which we feel alive, loved and important. I see that the conclusion is getting way too long again ´:), so I am going to try to finally put it in a nutshell. I know it can be hard, but what is important is that you understand that you have to stop using the phrase `If I do this…I´ll be happy´ because if you do not, you will continue to waste your time with expectations for yourself that make you feel inferior and sad. Spend the moments of the present in a way that brings you joy now, not in a way that you think will at some point lead to happiness but that makes you sad now. You will be able to have an impact, to be a part of positive change, if you stop making plans for it and start today, as small as that start may be. Because remember: You may be small, but you are not insignificant!
I came across a video on YouTube a while ago that inspired me to think about all the plastic waste we produce while shopping for groceries. More importantly, I became aware of how many amazing alternatives to plastic packaging are already out there that have the same convenient properties for food storage. I like to rewatch this video anytime I feel like I need a reminder of how bad the problem of single-use-plastics actually is, how much it is hurting our environment and how simple the solution could actually be. We have to change the fact that the aisles in our supermarkets look like this way too often:
The effects of our excessice use of plastic
I think we have all seen these kinds of pictures before and they speak for themselves. Through our unnecessary and excessive use of plastic, we endanger the health of the ecosystems that are vital for our planet and for our own survival. The fact that we are still going on with it even though excellent, compostable alternatives to plastic have been found, is incomprehensible to me. We are aware of the islands of plastic that are floating on the ocean and of animals eating or being entangled in our plastic waste and dying from it. The packaging we throw away after one single use is likely to end up in the environment instead of being recycled and because of natural weathering processes it can degrade to microplastics of less than 5 mm in size which make freeing the ocean from plastic even more of a challenge.
Supermarkets: part of the problem and part of the solution
Supermarkets, particularly chains, have an immense influence on the decisions of companies. It would be possible for them to simply inform the brands that they will cease to sell their products if they will not opt for plastic-free, environmentally-friendly packaging. A Budgens supermarket in north London has proven this and can succesfully offer a vast variety of products free from plastic packaging.
Andrew Thornton, the owner of this Budgens, says that they “took action because (they) could” and in only ten weeks they were able to transform large parts of their shop into plastic-free zones. They simply imformed the companies who were supplying them with products that they would find other alternatives if they were not able to offer them their products in plastic-free packaging. And it worked! Plus, their shop is even doing better as a business now that they are able to present customers with the option of consuming in a more environmentally-friendly manner. Imagine what impact bigger retailers could have if they took this Budgens as an example for their own businesses! Andrew Thornton´s comment on this subject was: “If we, as one store operator with very little resources, can do this in ten weeks, what could a Loblaws, or a Tesco or a Walmart do, if they put all the resources behind it?”
Alternatives to plastic
The video mentions packaging made out of plant-based cellulose as an alternative to plastic packaging. I very recently came across “Nature Flex” which looks and feels just like plastic, but is made out of renewable wood pulp and can be disposed of on the compost heap.
I was absolutely amazed by this as I had not previously been aware of the fact that there are already alternatives to plastic that are just as good at ensuring good hygiene and longer shelf life as plastic but compostable and thus environmentall-friendly. Please tell me if you already knew about this! After finding out about it, I am now officially confused about why this stuff is not everywhere yet instead of a substance that is a serious danger to the health of our ecosystems.
To conclude, we have a serious problem with plastic waste. It is everywhere nowadays and while animals are dying from swallowing it and entire islands are turned into landfills, we are still bringing home ridiculous amounts of plastic from our shop for groceries. I understand that not everybody has the option of going to an organic bulk store just around the corner because those are sadly way too scarce. That is why I think it is so important that supermarkets start giving their customers the option of choosing plastic-free when shopping. I am certain that enough people care about the environment for a simple change like this to have a real impact. The example of the Budgens supermarket in London shows that it is possible, and even quite simple for a store to make the switch to plastic-free packaging. We only have to demand this change from the retailers. That is how capitalism works: the companies will change their ways if the consumers demand it. None of us is insignificant in this matter. We may be small, but we are significant!